Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT)

Carbon cycle, entry
The Surface Ocean CO₂ Atlas (SOCAT) is a synthesis activity for quality-controlled, surface ocean fCO₂ (fugacity of carbon dioxide) observations by the international marine carbon research community (>100 contributors). It has over 20 million fCO₂ measurements .


published yes
availability public
link raw data and code gridded data


type observations (raw)
gridded yes
formats nc, txt, odv,  tsv


period historical
coverage 1957–2017
resolution decadal, annual, monthly, instantaneous


coverage global
resolution global 1° by 1° coastal 0.25° by 0.25°
depth surface
figureSource: Figure 1 from Bakker et al. (2016)

Major Variables

Key References

  • Bakker, D et al. (2016). A multi-decade record of high quality fCO₂ data in version 3 of the Surface Ocean CO₂ Atlas (SOCAT). Earth System Science Data, 8, 383-413.